: reasoning conducted or assessed according to strict principles of validity (google)
: the science that studies the formal processes used in thinking and reasoning
the three fundamental laws of logic or the laws of thought are as follows:
law of contradiction - Nothing can both exist and not exist in the same way. Y cannot be Y and also not Y.
the law of excluded middle - Nothing is both true and false in the same respect.
the principle of identity - Everything is identical to itself. Y is Y. (britannica.com, oregonstate.edu)
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